Volume 47 • Number 4 • 2006

217 Population development, habitat requirements and ecology of the White-tailed Eagle
      Haliaeetus albicilla in the Augustów Forest.
Dorota Zawadzka, Jerzy Zawadzki, Waldemar Sudnik

Abstract: In 1989-2005 a White-tailed Eagle population was studied in the Augustów Forest . The first brood was recorded in 1991, and in 2004-2005 the number of breeding pairs increased to 8. The mean rate of the population growth was 1.3 pair/year. In 1999 the density of territorial pairs equalled 0.35 pair/100 km 2 to reach 0.70 pair/100 km 2 in 2005. The distance between nests decreased from 33 km in 1993 to ca 11 km in 2005. White-tailed Eagles built their nests exclusively in pine trees, aged 90-180, located 0.2-3.5 km (an average of 1.1 km) away from lake shores, preferring the habitat of mixed coniferous forest. The breeding success was 82% (N=28 broods), and the production of young amounted to an average of 1.41 per successful pair and 1.09 per breeding pair. In the breeding season the main food item were birds - 60.6% of prey items and 72.1% of the biomass, fishes constituting 30.2% and 23.7% respectively. The most numerous among the prey were ducks Anas sp. (21.7%), the Coot Fulica atra (15%), followed by the Bream Abramis brama (11.1%) and storks Ciconia sp. (6.9%), the last mentioned hunted only in one territory. In the winter diet, carcasses of big animals, laid out at the feeding places, predominated.

230 Numbers and breeding effects of birds of prey Falconiformes in the Kotlina Śremska
      region in 2001-2002.
      Zbigniew Kwieciński, Tadeusz Mizera

Abstract: The research was conducted in 2001-2002, on the study plot of 312 km 2 in 24.7% covered by forests. Nine species of birds of prey were found breeding in the area. Each year 149-150 pairs were recorded to breed at a density of 47.9 pairs/100 km 2 of total area. The density of a community of eight bird species amounted to 18.5 pairs/10 km 2 of forest area. The most abundant species was the Common Buzzard Buteo buteo, reaching mean densities of 28.5 pairs/100 km 2 of total area and 11.6 pairs/10 km 2 of forest area. Very high densities of the Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus - respectively 9.3 pairs/100 km 2 and 3.8 pairs/10 km 2 , and a high density of the Goshawk A. gentilis - respectively 4 pairs/100 km 2 and 1.7 pairs/10 km 2 were noted. Of the rarer species, breeding of the White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla (2 pairs), Black Kite Milvus migrans (3 pairs) and Red Kite M. milvus (5 pairs) was revealed. The low density of the Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus, i.e. 1.9-2.6 p/100 km 2 , confirms the species gradual quantitative regress from the region. Also, disappearance of the Kestrel Falco tinnunculus breeding population was recorded. The breeding success of the Common Buzzard was high, reaching 76%, whereas the number of fledglings low - 1.3 young per successful pair. The productivity of the Goshawk broods - 2.0 fledglings per successful pair, and the breeding success of this species, equalling 72%, were average. The demographic indices of the Sparrowhawk population were very low. Similarity analysis of the raptors community densities in the Kotlina Śremska and other regions of Poland does not show any considerable differences, which probably results from the predominance of the Common Buzzard in all communities. The main factor shaping the density pattern and quantitative relationships between particular species seems to be the landscape structure.

241 Moulting of the Tengmalm's Owls Aegolius funereus in the Poznań zoological garden.
Marian Cieślak, Zbigniew Kwieciński

Abstract: In the 2005 and 2006 seasons, moulting of three Tengmalm's Owls in the second calendar year was studied in Poznań zoological garden. The study covered a single male (M2) and a pair (M1, F1) which, although manifesting certain pre-breeding behaviour, had not actually commenced breeding. Each day the aviaries were controlled and the process of moulting reconstructed based on the feathers found. All birds completely exchanged rectrices and about half of the primary and secondary remiges. The single male started moulting earlier and finished after 70 days. Both birds from the pair started to moult almost three weeks later, intensively moulting during the first two decades, and the process lasted only 55 days. Remiges were found slower exchanged during the moulting of rectrices. Also, during the periods of intensive moulting asymmetry in shedding analogous feathers was more frequently observed. The birds studied exchanged more primaries and secondaries than recorded for an average Tengmalm's Owl when in natural environment. The slow exchange in this species seems to stem from delicate flight of these birds and slow wearing out of their feathers.

252 Owls Strigiformes of the Wieliczka-Wiśnicz Foothills and Beskid Wyspowy Mts.
      Łukasz Kajtoch

Abstract: Studies on owls in the Wieliczka and Wiśnicz Foothills and Beskid Wyspowy Mountains ( SE Poland ) were conducted in 1997-2006. Eight breeding species of owls were observed in three chosen plots named "Wielicka" (32 km 2 , 250-420 m a.s.l.), "Tarnawka" (28 km 2 , 300-450 m a.s.l.) and "Mogielica" (38 km 2 , 600-1170 m a.s.l.). The most numerous species were the Tawny Owl Strix aluco and Ural Owl S. uralensis (respectively 24-31% and 11-26% of all breeding sites, 14-53 and 14-22 breeding sites/100 km 2 ). The Long-eared Owl Asio otus and Little Owl Athene noctua (respectively 25-31% and 14-28% of all breeding sites, 22-47 and 11-48 breeding sites/100 km 2 ) were quite abundant in agricultural areas of the foothills. The Tengmalm's Owl Aegolius funereus and Pygmy Owl Glaucidium passerinum (each about 22% of all breeding sites and 14-20 breeding sites/100 km 2 ) were common also in mountain forests. Only 2 breeding sites of the Barn Owl Tyto alba were discovered in the foothills. The Eagle Owl Bubo bubo was also very rare - only 3 breeding sites were found in higher mountains. The study area is quite important for the Polish populations of owls, especially the Ural Owl, Eagle Owl, Tengmalm's Owl and Pygmy Owl (more than 2% of the Polish populations of these species breed there).


260 First record of the Least Sandpiper Calidris minutilla in Poland.
Paweł Malczyk

Summary: On 9th August 2005 an adult Least Sandpiper in worn breeding plumage was seen and photographed at Rudze fishponds near Zator (Małopolska region). A description of the bird and the species occurrence in Europe are given. Accepted by the Avifaunistic Commission.

262 Second record of the Lesser Sand Plover Charadrius mongolus in Poland.
      Mateusz Stopiński, Waldemar Półtorak, Arkadiusz Sikora, Piotr Zieliński

Summary: A Lesser Sand Plover was observed on the shore of the Bay of Gdańsk near Jastarnia and Rewa from 11th November 2005 till 10th January 2006 . The bird showed characters of the subspecies from the atrifrons group. This was the second record of this species in Poland (previous was on 17th June 1977 in Vistula mouth) and ca 27th in Europe . The plover stayed at the bay for two months and obviously, in spite of winter conditions at the end of this period, tried to winter at the site. It is the first known attempt at wintering of this species so far in the Northern Hemisphere, which is ca 5 thousand kilometers from the closest wintering grounds at the Persian Gulf . Accepted by the Avifaunistic Commission.

266 Second record of the Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius in Poland.
     Paweł Gębski, Grzegorz Orłowski

Summary: In 20th-24th August 2005 an adult Spotted Sandpiper in breeding plumage was seen and photographed at Mietkowski Reservoir , Lower Silesia ( SW Poland ). The previous record of this species was made at the same locality in September-October 1999. A description of the bird and the species occurrence in Europe are given. Accepted by the Avifaunistic Commission.

269 Breeding of Rooks Corvus frugilegus on railway lamps in Kielce.
     Piotr Wilniewczyc

Summary: In 2005, within the urban zone of Kielce an untypical breeding colony of Rooks was discovered which was established on railway lamps. Four nests were located on small roofed platforms (60 cm in diameter), constituting constructive elements of the lamp top, situated at a height of 16 m above the ground. The nests were spaced 45 m one apart from another. When at their nests, the birds were very shy and returned to them only when there were no humans within a radius of 150 m. Two broods were successful.

271 Untypical coloration in the Bearded Tit Panurus biarmicus.
Janusz Stępniewski

Summary: On 7th and 14th September 2002 , an untypically coloured Bearded Tit, showing characters of both male and female, was trapped. The bird had a blue grey head, like the typical male, but with a subtle brown-beige cast. The black beard was highly reduced, 1.1 cm in length. The bird's back was cinnamon brown as in the male, having, however, delicate black streaks, which is a very frequent feature in females. Also, the undertail coverts were light brown, typically of the female. On 24th September 2003 , another untypically-coloured Bearded Tit was trapped at Zgliniec fishponds. The bird looked as a female, but its undertail coverts were black like in the male.

273 Mystery bird 45: Crested Lark Galerida cristata.
Jan Lontkowski

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